Slot Bedeutung

Slot Bedeutung Suchformular

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Slot Bedeutung

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A candle is a light on top of the slot machine. It flashes to alert the operator that change is needed, hand pay is requested or a potential problem with the machine.

It can be lit by the player by pressing the "service" or "help" button. A coin hopper is a container where the coins that are immediately available for payouts are held.

When a certain preset coin capacity is reached, a coin diverter automatically redirects, or "drops", excess coins into a "drop bucket" or "drop box".

Unused coin hoppers can still be found even on games that exclusively employ Ticket-In, Ticket-Out technology, as a vestige.

The credit meter is a display of the amount of money or number of credits on the machine. On mechanical slot machines, this is usually a seven-segment display , but video slot machines typically use stylized text that suits the game's theme and user interface.

The drop bucket or drop box is a container located in a slot machine's base where excess coins are diverted from the hopper. Typically, a drop bucket is used for low-denomination slot machines and a drop box is used for high-denomination slot machines.

A drop box contains a hinged lid with one or more locks whereas a drop bucket does not contain a lid. The contents of drop buckets and drop boxes are collected and counted by the casino on a scheduled basis.

Free spins are a common form of bonus, where a series of spins are automatically played at no charge at the player's current wager. Free spins are usually triggered via a scatter of at least three designated symbols with the number of spins dependent on the number of symbols that land.

Some games allow the free spins bonus to "retrigger", which adds additional spins on top of those already awarded.

There is no theoretical limit to the number of free spins obtainable. Some games may have other features that can also trigger over the course of free spins.

A hand pay refers to a payout made by an attendant or at an exchange point "cage" , rather than by the slot machine itself. A hand pay occurs when the amount of the payout exceeds the maximum amount that was preset by the slot machine's operator.

Usually, the maximum amount is set at the level where the operator must begin to deduct taxes. A hand pay could also be necessary as a result of a short pay.

Hopper fill slip is a document used to record the replenishment of the coin in the coin hopper after it becomes depleted as a result of making payouts to players.

The slip indicates the amount of coin placed into the hoppers, as well as the signatures of the employees involved in the transaction, the slot machine number and the location and the date.

MEAL book M achine e ntry a uthorization l og is a log of the employee's entries into the machine. Low-level or slant-top slot machines include a stool so the player may sit down.

Stand-up or upright slot machines are played while standing. Optimal play is a payback percentage based on a gambler using the optimal strategy in a skill-based slot machine game.

Payline is a line that crosses through one symbol on each reel, along which a winning combination is evaluated. Classic spinning reel machines usually have up to nine paylines, while video slot machines may have as many as one hundred.

Paylines could be of various shapes horizontal, vertical, oblique, triangular, zigzag, etc. Persistent state refers to passive features on some slot machines, some of which able to trigger bonus payouts or other special features if certain conditions are met over time by players on that machine.

Roll-up is the process of dramatizing a win by playing sounds while the meters count up to the amount that has been won. Short pay refers to a partial payout made by a slot machine, which is less than the amount due to the player.

This occurs if the coin hopper has been depleted as a result of making earlier payouts to players. The remaining amount due to the player is either paid as a hand pay or an attendant will come and refill the machine.

A scatter is a pay combination based on occurrences of a designated symbol landing anywhere on the reels, rather than falling in sequence on the same payline.

A scatter pay usually requires a minimum of three symbols to land, and the machine may offer increased prizes or jackpots depending on the number that land.

Scatters are frequently used to trigger bonus games, such as free spins with the number of spins multiplying based on the number of scatter symbols that land.

The scatter symbol usually cannot be matched using wilds, and some games may require the scatter symbols to appear on consecutive reels in order to pay.

On some multiway games, scatter symbols still pay in unused areas. Taste is a reference to the small amount often paid out to keep a player seated and continuously betting.

Only rarely will machines fail to pay even the minimum out over the course of several pulls. Tilt is a term derived from electromechanical slot machines' " tilt switches ", which would make or break a circuit when they were tilted or otherwise tampered with that triggered an alarm.

While modern machines no longer have tilt switches, any kind of technical fault door switch in the wrong state, reel motor failure, out of paper, etc.

A theoretical hold worksheet is a document provided by the manufacturer for every slot machine that indicates the theoretical percentage the machine should hold based on the amount paid in.

The worksheet also indicates the reel strip settings, number of coins that may be played, the payout schedule, the number of reels and other information descriptive of the particular type of slot machine.

Volatility or variance refers to the measure of risk associated with playing a slot machine. A low-volatility slot machine has regular but smaller wins, while a high-variance slot machine has fewer but bigger wins.

Weight count is an American term referring to the total value of coins or tokens removed from a slot machine's drop bucket or drop box for counting by the casino's hard count team through the use of a weigh scale.

Wild symbols substitute for most other symbols in the game similarly to a joker card , usually excluding scatter and jackpot symbols or offering a lower prize on non-natural combinations that include wilds.

How jokers behave are dependent on the specific game and whether the player is in a bonus or free games mode.

Sometimes wild symbols may only appear on certain reels, or have a chance to "stack" across the entire reel.

Each machine has a table that lists the number of credits the player will receive if the symbols listed on the pay table line up on the pay line of the machine.

Some symbols are wild and can represent many, or all, of the other symbols to complete a winning line. Especially on older machines, the pay table is listed on the face of the machine, usually above and below the area containing the wheels.

On video slot machines, they are usually contained within a help menu, along with information on other features.

Historically, all slot machines used revolving mechanical reels to display and determine results.

Although the original slot machine used five reels, simpler, and therefore more reliable, three reel machines quickly became the standard. This limited the manufacturer's ability to offer large jackpots since even the rarest event had a likelihood of 0.

Although the number of symbols eventually increased to about 22, allowing 10, combinations, [20] this still limited jackpot sizes as well as the number of possible outcomes.

In the s, however, slot machine manufacturers incorporated electronics into their products and programmed them to weight particular symbols. Thus the odds of losing symbols appearing on the payline became disproportionate to their actual frequency on the physical reel.

A symbol would only appear once on the reel displayed to the player, but could, in fact, occupy several stops on the multiple reel.

In Inge Telnaes received a patent for a device titled, "Electronic Gaming Device Utilizing a Random Number Generator for Selecting the Reel Stop Positions" US Patent , [21] which states: "It is important to make a machine that is perceived to present greater chances of payoff than it actually has within the legal limitations that games of chance must operate.

With microprocessors now ubiquitous, the computers inside modern slot machines allow manufacturers to assign a different probability to every symbol on every reel.

To the player it might appear that a winning symbol was "so close", whereas in fact the probability is much lower.

In the s in the U. These used a number of features to ensure the payout was controlled within the limits of the gambling legislation. As a coin was inserted into the machine, it could go either directly into the cashbox for the benefit of the owner or into a channel that formed the payout reservoir, with the microprocessor monitoring the number of coins in this channel.

The drums themselves were driven by stepper motors, controlled by the processor and with proximity sensors monitoring the position of the drums.

A "look-up table" within the software allows the processor to know what symbols were being displayed on the drums to the gambler.

This allowed the system to control the level of payout by stopping the drums at positions it had determined. If the payout channel had filled up, the payout became more generous; if nearly empty, the payout became less so thus giving good control of the odds.

Video slot machines do not use mechanical reels, instead of using graphical reels on a computerized display.

As there are no mechanical constraints on the design of video slot machines, games often use at least five reels, and may also use non-standard layouts.

This greatly expands the number of possibilities: a machine can have 50 or more symbols on a reel, giving odds as high as million to 1 against — enough for even the largest jackpot.

As there are so many combinations possible with five reels, manufacturers do not need to weight the payout symbols although some may still do so. Instead, higher paying symbols will typically appear only once or twice on each reel, while more common symbols earning a more frequent payout will appear many times.

Video slot machines usually make more extensive use of multimedia , and can feature more elaborate minigames as bonuses.

Modern cabinets typically use flat-panel displays , but cabinets using larger curved screens which can provide a more immersive experience for the player are not uncommon.

Video slot machines typically encourage the player to play multiple "lines": rather than simply taking the middle of the three symbols displayed on each reel, a line could go from top left to the bottom right or any other pattern specified by the manufacturer.

As each symbol is equally likely, there is no difficulty for the manufacturer in allowing the player to take as many of the possible lines on offer as desire — the long-term return to the player will be the same.

The difference for the player is that the more lines they play, the more likely they are to get paid on a given spin because they are betting more.

To avoid seeming as if the player's money is simply ebbing away whereas a payout of credits on a single-line machine would be bets and the player would feel they had made a substantial win, on a line machine, it would only be five bets and not seem as significant , manufacturers commonly offer bonus games, which can return many times their bet.

The player is encouraged to keep playing to reach the bonus: even if he is losing, the bonus game could allow then to win back their losses. All modern machines are designed using pseudorandom number generators "PRNGs" , which are constantly generating a sequence of simulated random numbers, at a rate of hundreds or perhaps thousands per second.

As soon as the "Play" button is pressed, the most recent random number is used to determine the result. This means that the result varies depending on exactly when the game is played.

A fraction of a second earlier or later and the result would be different. It is important that the machine contains a high-quality RNG implementation.

Because all PRNGs must eventually repeat their number sequence [24] and, if the period is short or the PRNG is otherwise flawed, an advanced player may be able to "predict" the next result.

Having access to the PRNG code and seed values, Ronald Dale Harris , a former slot machine programmer, discovered equations for specific gambling games like Keno that allowed him to predict what the next set of selected numbers would be based on the previous games played.

Most machines are designed to defeat this by generating numbers even when the machine is not being played so the player cannot tell where in the sequence they are, even if they know how the machine was programmed.

This is known as the "theoretical payout percentage" or RTP, "return to player". The minimum theoretical payout percentage varies among jurisdictions and is typically established by law or regulation.

The winning patterns on slot machines — the amounts they pay and the frequencies of those payouts — are carefully selected to yield a certain fraction of the money paid to the "house" the operator of the slot machine while returning the rest to the players during play.

Within some EGM development organizations this concept is referred to simply as "par". Play now! A slot machine's theoretical payout percentage is set at the factory when the software is written.

Changing the payout percentage after a slot machine has been placed on the gaming floor requires a physical swap of the software or firmware , which is usually stored on an EPROM but may be loaded onto non-volatile random access memory NVRAM or even stored on CD-ROM or DVD , depending on the capabilities of the machine and the applicable regulations.

Based on current technology, this is a time-consuming process and as such is done infrequently. Other jurisdictions, including Nevada, randomly audit slot machines to ensure that they contain only approved software.

Historically, many casinos, both online and offline, have been unwilling to publish individual game RTP figures, making it impossible for the player to know whether they are playing a "loose" or a "tight" game.

Since the turn of the century some information regarding these figures has started to come into the public domain either through various casinos releasing them—primarily this applies to online casinos—or through studies by independent gambling authorities.

The return to player is not the only statistic that is of interest. The probabilities of every payout on the pay table is also critical.

For example, consider a hypothetical slot machine with a dozen different values on the pay table. However, the probabilities of getting all the payouts are zero except the largest one.

Also, most people would not win anything, and having entries on the paytable that have a return of zero would be deceptive. As these individual probabilities are closely guarded secrets, it is possible that the advertised machines with high return to player simply increase the probabilities of these jackpots.

The added advantage is that these large jackpots increase the excitement of the other players. This game, in its original form, is obsolete, so these specific probabilities do not apply.

He only published the odds after a fan of his sent him some information provided on a slot machine that was posted on a machine in the Netherlands.

The psychology of the machine design is quickly revealed. There are 13 possible payouts ranging from to 2, The payout comes every 8 plays.

The payout comes every 33 plays, whereas the payout comes every plays. Most players assume the likelihood increases proportionate to the payout.

The one mid-size payout that is designed to give the player a thrill is the payout. It is programmed to occur an average of once every plays. The payout is high enough to create excitement, but not high enough that it makes it likely that the player will take his winnings and abandon the game.

In contrast the payout occurs only on average of once every 6, plays. The player who continues to feed the machine is likely to have several mid-size payouts, but unlikely to have a large payout.

He quits after he is bored or has exhausted his bankroll. Despite their confidentiality, occasionally a PAR sheet is posted on a website.

They have limited value to the player, because usually a machine will have 8 to 12 different possible programs with varying payouts.

In addition, slight variations of each machine e. The casino operator can choose which EPROM chip to install in any particular machine to select the payout desired.

The result is that there is not really such a thing as a high payback type of machine, since every machine potentially has multiple settings.

Without revealing the proprietary information, he developed a program that would allow him to determine with usually less than a dozen plays on each machine which EPROM chip was installed.

Then he did a survey of over machines in 70 different casinos in Las Vegas. He averaged the data, and assigned an average payback percentage to the machines in each casino.

The resultant list was widely publicized for marketing purposes especially by the Palms casino which had the top ranking.

One reason that the slot machine is so profitable to a casino is that the player must play the high house edge and high payout wagers along with the low house edge and low payout wagers.

Other bets have a higher house edge, but the player is rewarded with a bigger win up to thirty times in craps. The player can choose what kind of wager he wants to make.

A slot machine does not afford such an opportunity. Theoretically, the operator could make these probabilities available, or allow the player to choose which one so that the player is free to make a choice.

However, no operator has ever enacted this strategy. Different machines have different maximum payouts, but without knowing the odds of getting the jackpot, there is no rational way to differentiate.

In many markets where central monitoring and control systems are used to link machines for auditing and security purposes, usually in wide area networks of multiple venues and thousands of machines, player return must usually be changed from a central computer rather than at each machine.

A range of percentages is set in the game software and selected remotely. In , the Nevada Gaming Commission began working with Las Vegas casinos on technology that would allow the casino's management to change the game, the odds, and the payouts remotely.

The change cannot be done instantaneously, but only after the selected machine has been idle for at least four minutes.

After the change is made, the machine must be locked to new players for four minutes and display an on-screen message informing potential players that a change is being made.

Some varieties of slot machines can be linked together in a setup sometimes known as a "community" game. The most basic form of this setup involves progressive jackpots that are shared between the bank of machines, but may include multiplayer bonuses and other features.

In some cases multiple machines are linked across multiple casinos. In these cases, the machines may be owned by the manufacturer, who is responsible for paying the jackpot.

The casinos lease the machines rather than owning them outright. Casinos in New Jersey, Nevada, and South Dakota now offer multi-state progressive jackpots, which now offer bigger jackpot pools.

Mechanical slot machines and their coin acceptors were sometimes susceptible to cheating devices and other scams. One historical example involved spinning a coin with a short length of plastic wire.

The weight and size of the coin would be accepted by the machine and credits would be granted. However, the spin created by the plastic wire would cause the coin to exit through the reject chute into the payout tray.

This particular scam has become obsolete due to improvements in newer slot machines. Another obsolete method of defeating slot machines was to use a light source to confuse the optical sensor used to count coins during payout.

Modern slot machines are controlled by EPROM computer chips and, in large casinos, coin acceptors have become obsolete in favor of bill acceptors.

These machines and their bill acceptors are designed with advanced anti-cheating and anti-counterfeiting measures and are difficult to defraud.

Early computerized slot machines were sometimes defrauded through the use of cheating devices, such as the "slider" or "monkey paw".

Computerized slot machines are fully deterministic and thus outcomes can be sometimes successfully predicted. Malfunctioning electronic slot machines are capable of indicating jackpot winnings far in excess of those advertised.

In the United States, the public and private availability of slot machines is highly regulated by state governments. Many states have established gaming control boards to regulate the possession and use of slot machines and other form of gaming.

Nevada is the only state that has no significant restrictions against slot machines both for public and private use.

In New Jersey , slot machines are only allowed in hotel casinos operated in Atlantic City. Several states Indiana , Louisiana and Missouri allow slot machines as well as any casino-style gambling only on licensed riverboats or permanently anchored barges.

Since Hurricane Katrina , Mississippi has removed the requirement that casinos on the Gulf Coast operate on barges and now allows them on land along the shoreline.

Delaware allows slot machines at three horse tracks; they are regulated by the state lottery commission. In Wisconsin, bars and taverns are allowed to have up to five machines.

These machines usually allow a player to either take a payout, or gamble it on a double-or-nothing "side game". The territory of Puerto Rico places significant restrictions on slot machine ownership, but the law is widely flouted and slot machines are common in bars and coffeeshops.

In regards to tribal casinos located on Native American reservations , slot machines played against the house and operating independently from a centralized computer system are classified as "Class III" gaming by the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act IGRA , and sometimes promoted as "Vegas-style" slot machines.

As a workaround, some casinos may operate slot machines as "Class II" games—a category that includes games where players play exclusively against at least one other opponent and not the house, such as bingo or any related games such as pull-tabs.

In these cases, the reels are an entertainment display with a pre-determined outcome based on a centralized game played against other players.

Some historical race wagering terminals operate in a similar manner, with the machines using slots as an entertainment display for outcomes paid using the parimutuel betting system, based on results of randomly-selected, previously-held horse races with the player able to view selected details about the race and adjust their picks before playing the credit, or otherwise use an auto-bet system.

Conversely, in Connecticut , Hawaii , Nebraska , South Carolina , and Tennessee , private ownership of any slot machine is completely prohibited.

The remaining states allow slot machines of a certain age typically 25—30 years or slot machines manufactured before a specific date. For a detailed list of state-by-state regulations on private slot machine ownership, see U.

In essence, the term "lottery scheme" used in the code means slot machines, bingo and table games normally associated with a casino.

These fall under the jurisdiction of the province or territory without reference to the federal government; in practice, all Canadian provinces operate gaming boards that oversee lotteries, casinos and video lottery terminals under their jurisdiction.

OLG piloted a classification system for slot machines at the Grand River Raceway developed by University of Waterloo professor Kevin Harrigan, as part of its PlaySmart initiative for responsible gambling.

Inspired by nutrition labels on foods, they displayed metrics such as volatility and frequency of payouts.

In Australia "Poker Machines" or "pokies" [39] are officially termed "gaming machines". In Australia, gaming machines are a matter for state governments, so laws vary between states.

Gaming machines are found in casinos approximately one in each major city , pubs and clubs in some states usually sports, social, or RSL clubs. The first Australian state to legalize this style of gambling was New South Wales , when in they were made legal in all registered clubs in the state.

There are suggestions that the proliferation of poker machines has led to increased levels of problem gambling ; however, the precise nature of this link is still open to research.

Australia ranks 8th in total number of gaming machines after Japan, U. This primarily is because gaming machines have been legal in the state of New South Wales since ; over time, the number of machines has grown to 97, at December , including the Australian Capital Territory.

By way of comparison, the U. State of Nevada, which legalised gaming including slots several decades before N.

This new law also banned machines with an automatic play option. All gaming machines in Victoria have an information screen accessible to the user by pressing the "i key" button, showing the game rules, paytable, return to player percentage, and the top and bottom five combinations with their odds.

These combinations are stated to be played on a minimum bet usually 1 credit per line, with 1 line or reel played, although some newer machines do not have an option to play 1 line; some machines may only allow maximum lines to be played , excluding feature wins.

Western Australia has the most restrictive regulations on electronic gaming machines in general, with the Crown Perth casino resort being the only venue allowed to operate them, [42] and banning slot machines with spinning reels entirely.

This policy had an extensive political history, reaffirmed by the Royal Commission into Gambling: [43]. Poker machine playing is a mindless, repetitive and insidious form of gambling which has many undesirable features.

It requires no thought, no skill or social contact. The odds are never about winning. Traditionally, each car runs on a separate lane with its own guide-slot though recently developed digital technology can allow cars to share and change lanes.

The challenge in racing slot cars comes in taking curves and other obstacles as fast as possible without causing the car to lose its grip and spin sideways, or to 'deslot', leaving the track altogether.

Some enthusiasts, much as in model railroading , build elaborate tracks, sculpted to have the appearance of a real-life racecourse, including miniature buildings, trees and people.

Hobbyists whose main goal is competition often prefer a track unobstructed by scenery. Model motorcycles, trucks and other vehicles that use the guide-slot system are also generally included under the loose classification of "slot car.

The diagram at right shows the wiring of a typical or slot car setup. Power for the car's motor is carried by metal strips next to the slot, and is picked up by contacts alongside the guide flag a swiveling blade under the front of the slot car.

The voltage is varied by a resistor in the hand controller. This is a basic circuit, and optional features such as braking elements or electronic control devices are not shown.

Likewise, the car's frame or chassis has been omitted for clarity. HO slot cars work on a similar principle, but the current is carried by thin metal rails that project barely above the track surface and are set farther out from the slot.

The car's electrical contacts, called "pickup shoes", are generally fixed directly to the chassis, and a round guide pin is often used instead of a swiveling flag.

Today, in all scales, traction magnets are sometimes used to provide downforce to help hold the car to the track at higher speeds, though some enthusiasts believe magnet-free racing provides greater challenge and enjoyment and allows the back of the car to slide or "drift" outward for visual realism.

There are three common slotcar scales sizes : scale , scale , and so-called HO size to scale. Usual pronunciation is "one twenty-fourth", "one thirty-second", and so on, but sometimes "one to twenty-four", "one to thirty-two".

In addition to the major scales, slot cars have been commercially produced in scale and scale , corresponding to O gauge model trains.

So far, there is little organized competition in , but the scale is gaining some acceptance among adult hobbyists for its affordability and moderate space requirements.

The E-Jaguar would be 4. The first commercial slot cars were made by Lionel USA and appeared in their catalogues from , [5] drawing power from a toy train rail sunk in a trough or wide slot between the rails.

Production was discontinued after Sporadically over the next forty years, several other electrically powered commercial products came and went.

For guidance, the cars were clamped to a single center rail, or tethered from the center of a circular track, then they were started and let go for timed runs.

There was no driver control of either the speed or steering, so "gas car" racing was largely a mechanic's hobby.

In —, several clubs in the U. By , even the pioneer rail-racing clubs had begun to switch to slots. In , Minimodels UK converted its Scalex later, clockwork racers to electricity, creating the famous Scalextric line of slot-guided models, [18] and Victory Industries UK introduced the VIP line, [19] [20] both companies eventually using the new plastic-molding technologies to provide controllable slot racers with authentic bodies in scale for the mass market.

Both lines included versatile sectional track for the home racer - or the home motorist; VIP produced sports cars and accessories slanted toward a "model roadways" theme, [21] while Scalextric more successfully focused on Grand Prix racing.

As Scalextric became an instant hit, American hobbyists and manufacturers were adapting car models to slots, [23] and British-American engineer Derek Brand developed a tiny vibrator motor small enough to power model cars roughly in scale with HO and OO electric trains.

The tiny cars fascinated the public, and their cost and space requirements were better suited to the average consumer than the larger scales.

In only a year or two, Scalextric's cars and Aurora's "Model Motoring" HO line had set off the "slot car craze" of the s.

The slot car craze was largely an US phenomenon, [25] but, commercially, it was a huge one. In , after a million and a half [24] had been produced, Aurora replaced the trouble-prone vibrator cars with an innovative flat- commutator "pancake" motor, [26] also created by Brand, and what is probably the best-selling slot car in history, the Aurora Thunderjet was born.

Faller Germany produced it for sale in Europe, and competing companies tried in vain to match the speed and reliability of Brand's design.

The Thunderjets and their improved versions, the AFX , sold in the tens of millions, [27] completely dominating the HO market for almost a decade, until challenged by the Tyco cars in the early s.

By the late s the slot car boom was well over, the model train tie-ins and miniature motoring concepts largely forgotten, and the market returned to the more serious racing hobbyist, with local and national racing organizations evolving to set standards and rules for different classes of competition.

Technological innovation brought much higher speeds in all scales, with faster motors, better tires, and traction magnets to hold the cars down in curves, though some of the s enthusiasts thought that slot racing had become too specialized for the casual hobbyist, and fondly remembered the more primitive cars of their youth as not so fast, but more fun.

In the s, computer design and methods of printing on 3-D objects helped create much more detailed and authentic models than the simple shapes and rudimentary graphics of the slot car boom.

In addition, newly manufactured replicas of Aurora's HO slot cars of the s and s appeared on the market and consumers gained the option of racing either the modern high-tech wondercars or the more basic designs of an earlier time.

In , the Digital Command Control DCC systems, which had revolutionized model railroading in the s, began to appear in slot cars, offering the ability to race multiple cars per lane with more realistic passing.

The DMX track has a series of parallel slots, allowing drivers to choose lanes on the inside, middle or outside of the raceway, passing or blocking other racers.

DMXslot cars have a rotating mechanism underneath each car with four pins that retract and protrude as the driver commands the car to move left or right.

A number of technological developments have been tried over the years to overcome the traditional slot car's limitations. Most lasted only a few years, and are now merely historical curiosities.

Around , AMT 's Turnpike system USA used multiple electrical pickups within the slot to allow drivers to control, to a limited extent, the steering of special cars.

In the late s the Arnold Minimobil system Germany , also marketed as the Matchbox Motorway UK , used a long hidden coil, powered by track-side motors, to move die-cast or plastic cars down the track via a slot and detachable pin.

Cars in different lanes could race, but cars in the same lane moved at the same speed, separated by a fixed distance.

Also in the '60s Eldon Industries, Inc. The cars and transformer used diodes to separate the control signals from the hand controllers that allowed for both cars to run independently in the same lane.

In the mid and late s several manufacturers including Aurora , Lionel and Ideal USA introduced slotless racing systems that theoretically allowed cars to pass one another from the same lane.

Most used a system of multiple power rails that allowed one car to speed up momentarily and move to the outside to pass.

Though briefly successful as toy products, none of these systems worked well enough to be taken up by serious hobbyists. In , a number of traditional slot car manufacturers introduced digital control systems, which enable multiple cars to run in the same lane and to change lanes at certain points on the course.

Digitally coded signals sent along the power strips allow each car to respond only to its own controller. In addition, imaginative manufacturers have used the slot track system to allow the racing of a variety of unusual things, including motorcycles, [1] boats, [30] airplanes, [31] spacecraft, [31] horses, [1] fictional and cartoon vehicles, [24] snowmobiles, [24] and futuristic railroad trains.

The first sectional slot tracks from Scalextric and VIP were molded rubber and folded metal, respectively, but modern slot tracks fall into two main categories: plastic tracks and routed tracks.

Plastic tracks are made from the molded plastic commercial track sections. Sectional track is inexpensive and easy to assemble, and the design of the course can be easily changed.

The joints between the sections, however, make a rough running surface, prompting the derisive term "clickety-clack track".

The many electrical connections cause voltage drop and contribute to more frequent electrical problems.

For a permanent setup, the joints can be filled and smoothed, and the power rails soldered together or even replaced with continuous strips, but the surface is seldom as smooth as a good routed track.

Routed tracks have the entire racecourse made from one or a few pieces of sheet material traditionally chipboard or MDF , but sometimes polymer materials with the guide-slots and the grooves for the power strips cut directly into the base material using a router or CNC machining.

This provides a smooth and consistent surface, which is generally preferred for serious competition. Power for most slot car tracks comes from a power pack.

Power packs contain a transformer, which reduces high voltage house current to a safe 12 to 20V, depending on car type and usually a rectifier, which changes AC to DC, for cooler running and simpler motors.

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